In brief, I came up with the following list of possible sources:
• Exploration and appraisal activities (vessels, rigs, cement, mud/chemicals, tubing)
• Development (further drilling, fabrication, transport, installation)
• Production (operations, manning, chemicals, interventions)
• Export (transport, compression, liquefaction, regassification)
• CCS (point of capture, efficiency)
This triggered a discussion amongst colleagues around how/where our Gas2Wire projects can reduce emissions, to ultimately produce a ‘cleaner gas’. Given we intend not to enter a project until well into the production stage, we accepted that we cannot change events prior to our involvement. However, by maximising resource recovery, and extending plant life, we can improve the efficiency of already spent or ‘sunk emissions’, which could be seen on an emissions/MMscf or BOE basis. This is a useful comparative metric for companies and regulators when considering different projects and development options. At some levels it is already used, however for many companies there are no reliable estimates for operational emissions.
Where we can make the biggest difference is by using gas at its source, rather than for instance exporting the gas via pipeline or LNG vessel. By effectively cutting out the ‘gas export’ stage, we can remove the emissions associated with compression and pigging in the case of a pipeline and cooling/liquefaction, transport and regassification in the case of LNG. In exchange, we accept a marginal power loss / voltage drop on route to shore, but one that can be minimised by tying into existing or planned windfarm infrastructure. Given the opportunity to fill troughs and by providing a constant baseload through renewable power infrastructure, we expect to offset losses from both projects by maintaining a single, higher voltage.
Our approach also adds the possibility of reinjecting emissions back into the reservoir, post-energy transform. Although we recognise that this form of carbon capture (post combustion) still requires further development.